Excerpt taken from The what to eat diabetes & what to cook cookbook to treat type 2 diabetes, Amy Campbell MS RD LDN, CDE, 2010, 2013 Dorling Kindersley, DK Publishing.
The following excerpt below is taken from the above cited book which I bought and it has numerous recipes and meal planners for you to make. I felt this section needed to be added to my blog because of the importance of eating well and living with diabetes. The book contains information on the five-point eating plan which includes:
- Eat more fruit and vegetables;
- Choose the right carbohydrates;
- Swap bad fats for good;
- Replace salt with good flavorings; and
- Lower your sugar intake.
The main idea of the five-point eating plan is to eat at least five portions of vegetables and fruit a day. When trying to calculate the correct amount the following portion size amounts are what you need to consider:
- A portion is approximately 3 oz(g);
- Visual guide – clench your fist which is approximately the correct size;
- Five is the minimum number of portions you should eat each day;
- Aim to eat a variety of vegetables and fruits;
- Be careful about the fruits because of the natural sugars they have;
- Fruit is an excellent source of vitamins and minerals and may lower your risk of heart disease, certain cancers, and digestive issues;
- Dried fruit has a very concentrated amount of sugars while fruit juice releases into your system bloodstream quickly so it is preferable to eat whole fresh fruit;
- Around half of your plate should be vegetables and should be considered as an ingredient and not a side or accompaniment;
- Regard vegetables as an ingredient you can use in your recipes;
- Vegetables are low in calories and are a great source of fiber;
- Vegetables are an excellent source of antioxidant vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals; and
- Vegetables can help to reduce the risk of health problems associated with diabetes.
Book Excerpt: EATING WELL WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES
Our blood glucose level should not become too high or too low, so to regulate it, the pancreas produces insulin. If you have Type 2 diabetes, you’ll know that your pancreas isn’t producing enough insulin, or the insulin isn’t doing its job properly.
HOW THIS BOOK CAN HELP YOU IN DEALING WITH DIABETES:
The recipes in this book are designed to help you achieve a healthy, balanced diet that includes whole grains, low-GI carbohydrates, lean protein, dietary fiber, low-fat dairy products, and plenty of vegetables and fruit. They are also lower in sodium, fat and sugar. All this equals a great diet, whether you have Type 2 diabetes or not.
Where the book goes further is in providing “Guidelines per serving” for each recipe, which show you whether the dish is relatively high (3 dots), medium (2 dots) or low (1 dot) in GI, calories, saturated fat, and sodium—the four key dietary areas to watch when you have Type 2 diabetes.
MEAL PLAN OFFERS:
Some important things to remember when eating are to eat a rainbow. What is meant by this is to make sure you are eating a variety of fruits and vegetables because different colors contain different vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals. Try to eat one serving of fruit or vegetable from each of the color bands every day.
Some ways in which you can make it easier to eat fruit and vegetables are:
|ADD A HANDFUL OF VEGETABLES
Mix chopped vegetables like carrots peppers into spaghetti, shepherds pie, or lasagna.
|GIVE PIZZA AN EXTRA TOPPING
Pile pizzas with vegetables like spinach, peppers, artichokes, or mushrooms.
|GIVE SALAD A FRUIT BOOST
Add apple, pineapple, or pear to a green salad. Add some raisins, pomegranate seeds, or apricots to rice, pasta or couscous.
|SERVE HEALTHY SNACKS AT PARTIES
Instead of providing chips offer pieces of raw carrots, peppers, celery, or cauliflower with yogurt dip or salsa.
|SERVE ROAST PUMPKIN INSTEAD OF ROAST POTATOES
Roast small chunks of pumpkin and drizzle with some oil, at 400°F (200°C) for 30-40 minutes.
|KEEP A BOWL OF FRUIT AT YOUR DESK AT WORK
This ensures you always have a source of healthy items to snack on nearby and will help you resist candy or other junk food items.
Spread some mashed banana on toast instead of jams or add some chopped apricots or fresh berries to cereal.
|SWAP A LUNCH SANDWICH FOR A BOWL OF VEGETABLE SOUP
Increase your nutrient intake by adding beans and pulses.
|SERVE MEAT OF FISH WITH A SPICY SALSA
Mix finely chopped red onion, chile or tomatoes with avocados or try onion, chile, mango, and cucumber.
|CHOOSE HEALTHY SNACKS
Keep a container or plastic bag filled with washed and prepped vegetables in the fridge.
Some of the different types of vegetables and fruits in the rainbow chart are:
|RAINBOW COLORS CHART|
|RED||Strawberries, raspberries, apples, watermelon, red peppers, tomatoes|
|ORANGE||Carrots, pumpkins, oranges, mangoes, papaya, apricots|
|YELLOW||Bananas, melons, pineapples, grapefruit|
|GREEN||Broccoli, spinach, peas, kiwi fruit, kale, spring cabbage, celery, green beans, cauliflower|
|BLUE/INDIGO/VIOLET||Eggplant, blueberries, blackberries, prunes, red cabbage, plums, red onions, beets|
When you are getting hungry, instead of snacking on unhealthy foods like chips or candy, and other types of unhealthy snacks, use low-calorie foods to help you to feel full longer. The feeling of being full depends on what you eat and there is a ranking system for foods based on their ability to satisfy your hunger. This food ranking system is called ‘SATIETY INDEX’.
The simplest factor is the volume of food you consume. An example is, if you snack on cheese you have to limit it to a small amount because of the calories contained. This can be less satisfying than if you choose fruit or vegetables. These items have fewer calories and that means you can eat a larger amount.
Some examples are:
- 2 oz Cheese (50 g) = 5 1/2 (150g) Tzatziki, 3 1/2 oz (100g) Carrot, 3 1/2 oz (100g) Pepper, 2 1/2 oz (75g) Asparagus.
- 1//2 oz (15g) Peanuts = 1 lb (450g) Cherry tomatoes.
- 9 fl oz (250 ml) Apple Juice = 2 Apples (3 1/2 oz (100g) each.
- 1 oz Raisins = 5 oz (140g) Grapes.
CHOOSING THE RIGHT CARBOHYDRATES
Carbs are an essential source of energy in our diets and is divided into two main types: starchy carbs and sugars. The following chart details some of the types of ingredients in both types of carbs:
|SUGARS||Sucrose (table sugar), lactose (sugar found in dairy foods,) Fructose (sugar found in fruits).|
|STARCHY||Bread, potatoes, pasta rice, noodles, and cereals.|
|TWO STARCHY CARBS GROUPS||Refined carbohydrates: white bread, white rice, and products made with white flour
Unrefined carbohydrates: whole grain carbs, wholemeal bread, brown rice.
The refined carbs release energy very quickly and can cause a surge in your blood glucose while unrefined carbs release the energy slowly. Diabetic people need to be able to have a stable blood glucose level so the unrefined carbs are better suited as a good, healthy diet.
The Glycemic Index (GI) is a way of measuring the effect of food on blood glucose levels. Low GI carbs are converted slowly into glucose so the release of glucose in the blood stream is gradual. There is less likely an opportunity for a spike in blood glucose levels which is better for your health. Glycemic Index ranks carbs according to how quickly they are converted into glucose in your body and to the extent of how they raise your blood glucose level after eating them. Foods containing high GI (70+) get broken down quickly and this results in a fast rise in blood glucose levels. If you have diabetes you need to avoid the high GI foods. Low GI foods (55 and below) get absorbed slower into your bloodstream which results in a steady and controlled rise in your blood glucose levels.
Most of the carbs you eat should be starchy carbs, fruit and vegetables and some dairy products. Whole grain are the best for a healthy diet. When you refine grains, you lose the fiber, vitamins and minerals so you are missing the opportunity to consume these nutrients. Whole grains are milled into flour and make foods such as pasta and bread items. The whole grain has fiber which slows the conversion of starch into glucose and helps to balance blood glucose levels. The fiber keeps your digestive system healthy and may lower your risk of heart disease or cancer.
I hope this helps to show you a better way of eating and incorporating healthy eating habits and foods into your diet. If you have any particular type of question or subject you would like me to research or provide please let me know.