The following article explains the loss of bone density in a person who has Diabetes and relates the research and studies done to collaborate the research. I found this very interesting and had to include the link for anyone interested in reading the article. I am also including a link for the pdf file so that you can download it if you wish.
The beginning of the article states:
“A new study led by University of Pennsylvania researchers has found that the
oral microbiome is affected by diabetes, causing a shift to increase its
pathogenicity. The research, published in the journal Cell Host & Microbe this
week, not only showed that the oral microbiome of mice with diabetes shifted
but that the change was associated with increased inflammation and bone loss.”
The article goes on state,
“Up until now, there had been no concrete evidence that diabetes affects the
oral microbiome,” said Dana Graves, senior author on the new study and vice
dean of scholarship and research at Penn’s School of Dental Medicine. “But the
“Just four years ago, the European Federation of Periodontology and the
American Academy of Periodontology issued a report stating there is no
compelling evidence that diabetes is directly linked to changes in the oral
microbiome. But Graves and colleagues were skeptical and decided to pursue
the question, using a mouse model that mimics Type 2 diabetes.”
“My argument was that the appropriate studies just hadn’t been done, so I
decided, We’ll do the appropriate study,” Graves said.
Graves coauthoredthe study with Kyle Bittinger of the Children’s Hospital of
Philadelphia, who assisted with microbiome analysis, along with E Xiao from
Peking University, who was the first author, and coauthors from the University
of São Paulo, Sichuan University, the Federal University of Minas Gerais and
the University of Capinas. The authors consulted with Daniel Beiting of Penn
Vet’s Center for HostMicrobial Interactions and did the boneloss
measurements at the Penn Center for Musculoskeletal Diseases.
The researchers began by characterizing the oral microbiome of diabetic mice
compared to healthy mice. They found that the diabetic mice had a similar oral
microbiome to their healthy counterparts when they were sampled prior to
developing high blood sugar levels, or hyperglycemia. But, once the diabetic
mice were hyperglycemic, their microbiome became distinct from their normal
littermates, with a less diverse community of bacteria.
The diabetic mice also had periodontitis, including a loss of bone supporting
the teeth, and increased levels of IL17, a signaling molecule important in
immune response and inflammation. Increased levels of IL17 in humans are
associated with periodontal disease.
“The diabetic mice behaved similar to humans that had periodontal bone loss
and increased IL17 caused by a genetic disease,” Graves said.
The findings underscored an association between changes in the oral microbiome
and periodontitis but didn’t prove that the microbial changes were responsible for
disease. To drill in on the connection, the researchers transferred microorganisms
from the diabetic mice to normal germfree mice, animals that have been raised
without being exposed to any microbes. These recipient mice also developed bone
loss. A microCT scan revealed they had 42 percent less bone than mice that had
received a microbial transfer from normal mice. Markers of inflammation also went
up in the recipients of the diabetic oral microbiome. “We were able to induce the
rapid bone loss characteristic of the diabetic group into a normal group of animals
simply by transferring the oral microbiome,” said Graves.
With the microbiome now implicated in causing the periodontitis, Graves and
colleagues wanted to know how. Suspecting that inflammatory cytokines, and
specifically IL17, played a role, the researchers repeated the microbiome
transfer experiments, this time injecting the diabetic donors with an antiIL17
antibody prior to the transfer. Mice that received microbiomes from the treated
diabetic mice had much less severe bone loss compared to mice that received
a microbiome transfer from untreated mice. The findings “demonstrate
unequivocally” that diabetesinduced changes in the oral microbiome drive
inflammatory changes that enhance bone loss in periodontitis, the authors wrote.
Though IL17 treatment was effective at reducing bone loss in the mice, it is
unlikely to be a reasonable therapeutic strategy in humans due to its key role
in immune protection. But Graves noted that the study highlights the
Diabetes-induced changes in oral microbiome promote periodontal bone loss
importance for people with diabetes of controlling blood sugar and practicing
good oral hygiene.
“Diabetes is one of the systemic disease that is most closely linked to
periodontal disease, but the risk is substantially ameliorated by good glycemic
control,” he said. “And good oral hygiene can take the risk even further down.”